The French revolution happened in france.  Revolution means to overthrow the government.




(thats before the American Revolution)


End the BEAS


Leads to Napoleon


why study europe? it changes

Read Green History transition to ag and cities handout.


The french revolution is the first war involving one people against another peoples.  This 19th century pattern lasted until WWI. 


After 1917 the conflict of ideologies supplemented that of nation states.  Now that is dead  All the great 19th century political ideals fought over were western.


I’d also like to mention that Europe is studied a) because it is much of the west (and so much of us) and b) because it is moving fast.  This is again this fighting spirit that keeps it alive while older civilizations rust.  You can say that things move much slower, if at all, in other more stable civilizations.  China, The Eastern Roman empire, the dark ages,  India, Aztecs.  These civilizations are cyclical.  They are based on systems that don’t require change.  The west is interpretive and has a sense of history being change that keeps its eye on the future while the rest of the world looks to the eternal.


Again, 2 things make the french revolution possible

Science and Enlightenment.



Newton was in England.  Again almost all science comes from the northern protestant countries (Namely Britain and England)  And Newton is born in 1642 - 1727)


The significance of Newton is that he figures out how the whole universe works.  He leaves little mystery.  He shows it to work like a machine with according to simple laws that he figures out.


Newton inspired the idea that we could figure out the world.  This made people disatisfied with problems.  No its not okay that some are rich and some are near starvation.  Why couldn’t we end all problems of the world?


Newton did.  He figured out all the problems of the world. 


Two of newtons three laws


1) Inertia - Unless a force acts on an object, the motion of an object (or lack of it) will not change.                                                            


Tell them, so if a car is going 90 mph and you put it in nuetral it will roll forever at 90 mph!   Then see if we can identify the forces stopping it.



Force (a physical quantity that can affect the state of motion of an object)

Acceleration (change in speed or direction)

Mass (resistance to change)


The most important thing he did was F=Ma.  Force = Mass * Acceleration


So as one increases the force you increase the acceleration 

Take the M out and replace it with a constant F=ka.  As you increase one, you increase the other.

This is a direct proportion. Meaning one equals the other. The force equals the acceleration.


Of course, you do have different masses.


so F = Ma


More to push a chair than a desk

Moon ex


The force of gravity must = mass * acceleration


this applies to all objects the desk and the moon and is there fore universal



-------   =  acceleration    So as the force goes up acelleration goes up .

Mass                                        Also as the mass goes up the acceleration dips.


Moon Example



a =     m


At the end of this we should go out to the field with a football field.  We’ll separate the football thrower and catcher by three evenly spaced people.  They will count out 1, 2 , 3 , 4 ,5 as the ball is thrown passes the evenly spaced students and is caught. 


Another 3 will yell when it gets its highest.


We’ll look for eveness in horizontal inertia.  Also count the time it takes to go up vs the time it takes to go down.


3) for every action there is an equal and oppostie reaction.  Therefore all works without outside force (ie, god).




Newtons law of universal gravitation


F = G *   M * m



The Gravitational force (F) between two masses (M and m) is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (r) between them. G is a constant meaning gravity


Everything attracts everything. 


Gravity therefore gets weaker with distance and stronger with size.  So if you are close to someone and very fat you are more attractive.


So the tides on the earth are pulled by the moon.  Less so by the sun because it is farther away.

But at full and new moon the pull is greater and we get very high tides.


The effect of gravity on things on the earth is weight.  (on the roof you weigh less).

Three conclusions from Newton


1) God doesn’t affect us now.

2) if you want change you must apply force

3) natural law.


1700’s  Age of the French Englightenment


What does the word enlightenment mean to you.  What does it sound like?


Englightenment means to give knowledge.


The leaders wanted to “enlighten” the masses.  This was to be the basis of a better society.  People thaought that poverty and oppression were the fault of ignorance and superstition.


The greatest symbol of the enligthenment was the Encyclopedia (28 volumes published between 1751 and 1772).  All knowledge of the world was to be accessable in it.  If men had access to all knowledge of the world they could figure out what was real and what was superstition.


French philosophic movement


They really advanced western civilization.  To appreciate them you must realize that they came at a time when Protestants and Catholics are still at war.  All of Europe is ruled by Kings (1/2 with the approval of God through the Catholic church).  And what they pushed were beliefs in justice and toleration.   Much of this happened at danger to themselves. 

Also, Please remember this is befofre the wild west and gunfight at the okay corral.


The Church had the first vollumes of the ‘Encyclopedia suppressed. 


Diderot said “I know nothing so indecent as these vague declamations of the theologians against reason.  To hear them one would suppose that men could not enter into the bosom of Christianity except as a herd of cattle enters a stable.” 


Intellect was the ultimate human test of all truth and all good.  Let reason be freed, they said, and it would in a few generations build Utopia.


Once reason and knowledge became widespread, humanity would make great progress.  It was only a matter of time until the darkness of irrationality and would sweep problems away.




Where did the enlightenment brew?: The Salons were where, for 50 years,  these intelligent people met and exchanged ideas.  They were like dinner parties where after dinner and discussion people did science experiments.


The first thing to say about them is that they were attended by and hosted by women.


When civilization takes leaps forward are times when womens status goes up. 

The greek civilization was heavily influenced by goddess ideals.  Jesus Christ spent alot of time with women when it wasn’t seen as okay.  The 12th and 13th century was a time when some sentiment creeped in and flowered via the cult of the Virgin mary.  And here again, a great advance for civilization involving women. 


These conversations were partially successful because of the un stuck up relaxed nature of these meetings and also because the King lived far away in Versaille.  This kept them from being raided or much noticed.  It also kept the parisians away from pomp, impressive wealth (which is stultifying) and  petty talk of political day to day.


Again, they believed that knowledge and science and free thinking would lead to progress.  So they conversed about politics and philosophy and did science experiments.


They all did science as they believed that science was the key to our future.  It would lead to good applications here on earth.  They therefore made the encyclopedia.


They wanted to publish all their revolutionary views on religion.  They wanted to curtail the power of a lazy too wealthy king and his royal government.  They pushed science into the minds of many.  They believed in progress and rights.


But,  the salon goers were not merely a group of fashionable good-timers: they were the outstanding philosophers and scientists of the time. 


voltaire and enlightenment philosophy: Pro French Revolution


Liberal: liberate from the traditional order.


Voltaire constantly opposed  authority.


But first a thought on biographies and history.  If we think of the history of man as compared to the history of a man what can we learn? 


First of all,  what is more important the name and dates around the man or the ideas he holds and things he does?  Does the date he thought the thought matter? 


Second,  does a life divide neatly into categories? Creating dates from history is the same problem?  Historians mold and simplifiy history to get out of it what they want.


Again, scientific v. interpretive history.


Particularly to the king the King and the Pope.  In the 18th century they had alot of power in France.  The man who did the encyclopedia (Diderot) said that man “will not be free till the last king is strangled with the entrail s of the last priest.”


Voltaire said his job was “to say what I think”  He wrote an incredible amount becaue he was usually busy.  He said”not to be occupied and not to exist, amount to the same thing.” 





He wrote plays and tons of pamplets and books and did science.  He was the greatest writer of Europe.  Italy had the renaissance, Germany the protestant reformation and France had Voltaire.  He was imprisoned, beaten, sent into exile. 


His books were made illegal by the government and the church and yet he never shut up and largely won his cause.  


Never has a writer had in his lifetime such influence.  He forged fiercely a path for his truth, until at last kings, popes and emperors catered to him, thrones trembled before him and half the world listened to catch his every word.


Voltaire said “books rule the world, or at least those nations which have a written language; the others do not count. 


King Louis the 16th said, Those two men (Voltaire and Rousseau)have destroyed France (meaning him).”


He was a studious yet racous youth.  He told his father that he wanted to write literature.  His father said “Literature is the professsion of the man who wishes to be useless to society and a burden to his relatives, and to die of hunger”  His father sent him away to a relative to watch him.  But the Relative was charmed by hijm and lit him out too much.  His father  Then his father sent him away to be guarded by another person.  He started a romance and his father found out and brought him home.


He then became the talk of paris.  And when he suggested that the regents taking care while the new king grew up take over.  They imprisoned him.  He wrote in prison.


When they released him he put on a play that were enromously successful.


In it he satirized the priests and said “

Let us trust to ourselves, see all with our own eyes;

Let these be our oracles, our tripods and our gods.


Voltaire thought all war a ridiculous waste of life and effort. 


He then bought all the tickets in a poorly planned government lottery and became rich.  He spent years hanging out in the salons.


He became popular and then insulted a noble person by refusing to bow to him and was arrested.  He was released quickly with the promise that he go to England.


In England he was impressed that people could say what they wished without going to jail.  Here he also became a student of Lock Hobbes and seriously Newton.


He wrote a mauscript called “letters on the English” that critisized the idle aristocracy and the tithe obsorbing clergy of France witht heir perpetual recourse to the Bastille.  These manuscripts were the first cocks crow to the Revolution. 


But he didn’t print them because of fears of censors (he just circulated them with his .


He was allowed back in England, But after 5 years someone published “letters on the English”  He then, fearing prison, took off.  He took off with another mans wife.  She was a genius who studied science.  They went to the eastern part of France and started doing science.  Soon many intellectuals were visiting him.


He then started to write cute novels inwhich the characters all represent ideas.


One is Micromegas,


The earth is visited by an inhabitant of another planet called sirius.  He is 500,000 feet tall.  On his way he picks upa gentleman from Saturn, who grieves because he is only a few thousand feet in height. 


They stand in the mediterainian talking.  The Saturnians are sad because they only have 72 senses.  Also, their lives are only 15,000 years long.  So, he says, they almost start to die the day they are born.  They just start to get knowledge when they die.  it is sad.  They pick up a ship and the human passengers are tossed back and forth.


“The chaplains of the ship repeated exorcisms, the sailors swear, and the philosophers form a system to explain the problem.


Sirian bends down from a darkining cloud and addresses them.  He says,

“ O ye intelligent atoms, in whom the Supreme Being hath been pleased to manifest his omniscience and power, without a doubt your joys on this earth must be pure and exquisite; for being unenumbered with matter, and - to all appearance -  little else than soul, you must spend your lives in delight of pleasure and reflection, which are the true enjoyments of a perfect spirit.  True happiness i have found nowhere;  but certainly here it dwells.”

            “We have matter enough, “ answered one of the philosophers, “to do abundance of mischief... You must know, for example, that at this very moment, while I am speaking, there are 100,000 animals of our own species, covered with hats, slaying an equal number of their fellow-creatures, who wear turbans; at least they are either slaying or being slain; and this has usually been the case all over the earth from time immemorial.”

            Miscreants! Cried the indignant Sirian; “I have a good mind to take two or three steps and trample the whole nest of such ridiculous assassins under my feet.”

            “Don’t give yourself the trouble, replied the philosopher; “THey are industrious enough in securing their own destruction. At the end of ten years the hundredth part of these wretches will not survive... Besides, the punishment shound not be inflicted upon them, but upon those sedentary and slothful barbarians who , from their palaces, give orders for murdering a million of men, and then solemnly thank god for their success.”


Another  is “L’ Ingenu.




And it goes on and on from one problem to another.


Voltaire then got allowed back into paris to receive an honor.  He just had to lie and call himself a good catholic.  Then his wife left him and then died.   


Those who coudn’t get to him wrote to him.  He was just on the edge of the French border and still feared arrest.  One correspondence he struck up was with the prince frederick of germany.  He was to be the king. 

He was sad and tired of having to watch his words and so he accepted an invitation to live with the King of Prussia. 


Voltaire went to live with him for 16 years.  The king wanted to be a philosopher and so had him and others gathered around him.  The king was a writer and a poet. 


Then trouble struck because he made investments in another country he wasn’t supposed to and then he argued with a mathematician and the king took one side and he another.  He wrote something scathing about the mathematician.  He showed it to the king and the king of Germany thought it very funny, but asked that it not be published.  Voltaire said okay , but it had already been sent to the printer.  He had to take off. 


As he did so the king had him arrested.  He was supposed to be holding some dirty poems the king had written.  Voltaire had lost them and so was in prison for weeks until they were found. 


While in prison someone he owed money to came to get it.  He punched him in the ear.  The jailor told the man he’s just been boxed in the ear by the greatest man in Europe.


He went back to france where he could write.


Here he wrote a history of modern Europe.  But he strove for a radically new type.  It was the invention of interpretive history.  He looked below the surface for meaning and themes. 


Tell of the three kinds of history and give the handout on voltaire and history before him.


Read page 490 of the 3 estates.


He worked and worked to get rid of the lies.  He looked for a thread of meaning; he was convinced that this thread was the history of culture.  He was resolved that his history should deal not with kings, but with movements, forces and masses; not with nations; but witht the human race.  not with wars, but with the march of the human mind. 


his organizing theme would be culture. 


This rejection of kings from history was part of that democratic upheaval that ejected them from power.


Thus he created the philosophy of history.  The concept of universal progress for the human mind.


This book got him exiled.  Because it blamed christianity fro the fall of rome.  It also made christians mad because it included histories of all of the cultures and their religions.



The king declared that this frenchman who dared to think of himself as first a man and then a frenchman would never set foot on the soil of France again.


Through this Europe became conscious of itself as a nexperimental peninsula greater in importance than any single country. 


He went to  the border of Switzerland and France and bought a house called Ferney.


He kept his home in switzerland and it became a center of enlightenment and science and thinkers from all over Europe.  Also, Many kings wrote him and asked him questions.  Some apologized for not passing reforms fast enough for him.


But he became bitter and pessimistic.  And an earthquake in Lisbon (portugal) really depressed him and the Seven Years war (where France and England fought and killed over “a few acres of snow” in canada.


He then writes the pessimistic Candide.  In which terrible things happen to candide and Dr Pangloss keeps telling him its all for the good and life is worth living and that this is the best of all possible worlds.  Is captured and whipped and meets american slaves who have their legs chopped off so that there may be sugar in Europe.  He finds gold and it is stolen from him and he finally ends up a farmer in Turkey.


He could have remained cynical and jaded and beaten out of action.  But, there was an area where no protestant could be a lawyer, servant, doctor, pharmacist, grocer, book seller or printer. 


On man had a son whose business was bad and hung himself.  At the time suicides were drawn naked through the streets on a cart and then hung in the main square.  His father, asked his relatives to say it was a natural death.  Rumors of murder made the man flee and he told his story to Voltaire.


Also  in the 1760s a boy was arrested and charged with vandalizing crucifixes.  He was  tortured till he confessed and had his head cut off and his body thrown into the flames with Voltaires Philosophical dictionary. 


Other similar incidents happened.  So Voltaire now took up a sword against the Church  He asked by what right a free being could force another to think like himself.


He wrote a treaty on toleration. He writes against torture and killing in the name of the bible. He put out many other small books that sold very well. 


He writes books showing the inconsistency of the bible. (jews not being the chosen anymore, the prophecies of a messiah and the said messiah not matching.  He writes on the pagan roots of holidays.  He publishes about myths from many other cultures and asks why christianity is the best.


He blames not the religion, but the church.;  The evil deeds are not done by the ordinary folk, but rather by the rich clergy that sponge off of them.  He hates the church, but believes in God.  He says people don’t fear god as much as they fear the Catholic church.


He thinks it irrational not to believe in god.  He loves the sermon on the mount.  The logic of the systems of Newton prove a god to him.  But he cannot accept immortality and he cannot accept that god intervenes for individuals (he’s have more important things to do).


He gets out of politics but advises that proprety should be distributed somehow.  But that property should be owned.  He says people debate if democracy is best or aristocracy or monarchy.  But everywhere there is monarchy.  Why?  Ask the mice that proposed to put a bell around the cats neck.


He also doesn’t care about nationalities.  He is a man of the world.


And he hates war.  IT is a crime to kill unless you do it in large numbers.  War is the worst crime, but always wrapped in talk of justice.  He actually doesn’t like revolution because he doesn’t trust the man on the street to be responsible or a good govenor.


All should have equal rights,  but not equal wealth or ability.


He did speak for juries, abolition of the tithing and an exemption for the poor on all taxes.


All this from the man who said “to not to be occupied andnot to exist are the same thing.  The further I advance in age, the more  I find work necessary. It becomes in the ling run the greatest of pleasures, and takes the place of the illusions of life.  If you do not want to commit suicide always have something to do.”


And at the age of 83 he decided to go back to paris one last time.  He arrived to cheering multitudes.  He got ahuger reception spontaneously than the king got with planning, angering the king.  He met Benjamin Franklin and his grandson.  He told BFs kid to dedicate himself to “god and liberty”  He met with a priest who told him he had come in the name of god and would not give him absolution unless he sigbned a statement saying he totally accepted the catholic faith.  He wrote a letter saying “I die adoring God, loving my friends, ot hating my enemies, and detesting superstition”.  He died on May 30th 1778.


That’s why his writing doesnt stand out today.  It seems obvious to us that the government shouldn’t kill people that disagree with it.  And that people should get to vote on who spends their tax dollars. 


Though he wasn’t for revolution, the middle class folk in the salons were, and he inspired them.


His greatest enemy was the church, which was tied to property and status and defending its interests by repression and injustice.  Voltaire said “Crush the Vermin!” about the church.  He remained somewhat of a believer in christianity though.  Even though many intellectuals saw us as a combination of nerves, bone tissue and nothing else.

Two things we get from the Enlightenment

1) Progress


Before this we never had an idea of progress.  All was cyclical.  They  invented interpretive history.  The Greeks found perfect things.  Aristotle found the perfect eternal function of animals, Plato found eternal truths.  The Jews had progress, but only as a preordained plan by god.  Catholics had no progress: Eternal truths of the church and Jesus and if improvement was to sneak in it would be in the afterlife.  Still again heaven is unchanging and stays the same forever.  Protestants created change, but it was still to make this world in accordance with gods world and we are back to progress on earth to get closer to eternal heaven.

            Enlightened thinkers said this world can be a better world if we only apply knowledge.  


I’d also like to mention that Europe is studied a) because it is much of the west (and so much of us) and b) because it is moving fast.  This is again this fighting spirit that keeps it alive while older civilizations rust.  You can say that things move much slower, if at all, in other more stable civilizations.  China, The Eastern Roman empire, the dark ages,  India, Aztecs.  These civilizations are cyclical.  They are based on systems that don’t require change.  The west is interpretive and has a sense of history being change that keeps its eye on the future while the rest of the world looks to the eternal.


Solve all problems with knowledge.


The enlightenment:  This was a movement that made all to feel that they could solve things rationally.  That man could create a bettter world in the here and now.  To the extent that we belive this we are enlightnement people.  How many feel that the world is getting better or can be made better?  To the extent that you believe this you believe in the enlightenment. 


For example:  

Brainstorm problems and solutions.

How about a solution for crime?  Do prisons work? 

How about a solution for environmental problems? We could recycle.

How about a solution for       


2) Natural Rights


Rights were based on  Natural law.  Newton had shown how systematized everything is, how logical and non random it is.  If we look at the intelligence of nature we can see the thinking of god. 


The enlightnement said people should all be counted as equal.  And have the right to say what they want.  And that the king is a kind, not a god.  Just a man with no more right to kill another than any other man.


All men are created equal.


They also introduced the idea of rights of mankind. 


How many believe burning witches and minority groups is wrong?  How about people being beaten and sent to jail for their opinions.   What do you think of confessions by torture? And this stuff is seen as bad now.  Why?


Human rights:  Freedom of the press, and of religion and morals and politics and thought.  They also foudght for the abolition of slavery and for a more humane treatement of criminals.  This culminated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.  They said these were natural rights, meaning you got them just by being born.


The french revolution also gave us the first declaration of womens rights.  Condorcet published a treaty about this.  Olympe di Gouges published Declaration on the Rights of Women in 1791.  She was beheaded in 1793 ( for opposing Robespierre and defending Louis the 16th)  and all political activity for women was banned. Women were extremely active in the revolutionand the saolons and it was women who led the domonstrations that forced the king away from his palace at Versailles.    


They should write one page (20 lines) about a problem in the world, why it is wrong, how it should be solved and why.


the French Revolution

The central event that takes us into modern times is the French Revolution.  It conquored much of Europe  with its army and all of Europe with its ideas.  Instead of feudal arrangements,  liberty.  In place of inherited status, equality. In place of institutions like the Church and the king: brotherhood.  These are things most of Europe still believes in.


If the French revolution sang songs learned in the Salons, who were the singers?


Who led the revolution?  The leaders were largely young people who were from small towns and couldn’t advance economically. 


Who did it? The masses of people fought with them.  Famously a group of peasant women got the king from Versaile and brought him back to Paris where they could keep an eye on him.


Why?  Unemployment and hunger stirred up the people.  There had been 6 disasterous crops prior to the revolution.  Benjamin Franklin was there and says there was a permanent fog and thought maybe it came from a volcano in Iceland.  He didn’t know there had been huge volcanic eruptions in Japan in the 1780s.


At any rate, it has been estimated that  10% of the country population lived only by begging.


Also, the rotten born nobility.  The deal was this, the king didn’t have the money not to tax the rich owners of the peasants and the land.   He therefore, taxed them but let them live at versaille and be filthy rich and elegant all the time.  This drove up expenses and they got their money from the poor anyways.


The revolution officially started when poor people in paris stormed a prison called the

Bastille looking for arms.   The king met their demans including wearing a hat with red white and blue on it.  White representing the monarchy and red and blue the people of Paris.


This didn’t pacify the hungry masses.  Scared the church and the nobility denounced their own ancient priveledges and they said that Fuedalism would be over forever.  On August 26th they drew up the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citicens. 


Have them draw up ten things they’d put on a bill of rights.


It gave men the right to chose which religion they wanted, to recei e quick and fair justice, to assemble, to own property and to be represented in government.  It also said all were to get a fair share of the tax burden.


The French revolution was to be the instillation of enlightenment values.


Folks decided to make the calendar year 1792 the year one.  They wanted to name the months the windy one, the hot one, the misty one.  They wanted to institute a religion of nature.  Several cathedral were turned from christian to nature worship churches. 


This love of nature was so entwined with the revolution that it affected womens fashions.  The wild puffed wigs and big puffy dresses were replaced with simple dresses.  People actually posed for paintings in bare feet.


While recognizing the rights of man the constitution transferred power from the priveleged estates to the general body of the rich and the educated.  The noobles stayed, but without titles.    They tried to follow the enlightenment thinkers and still some of their reforms hold today.


Offices could no longer be sold, torture was illegal.  In economics it went for laissez faire.  They kept the king who could veto things and selected ministers.  Active citizens who payed taxes could vote.  To pay for the kings debt they took the Churches land and the Kings land and the nobles land, putting at the disposition of the nation.  And also making the nation responsible for the costs of the religious services.


They reduced the number of bishops and said they and priests had to be elected.    This ignored the church law and the Pope (who elected all the church leaders himself).  This made enemies for the young revolution when it needed friends.


Many said it didn’t go far enough.  Still a king, still allowing the rich priveledges, not enough people got the right to vote.  The king took off and he was caught and brought back and when he was forgiven it angered the radicals.


To make them happy they had an election with totally new people  The new people thought it good to go to war with another country.  The old because France would lose and the revolution would give power back to the king.  The new because they thought a victory would givve them more power.


It failed and then there was a second revolution and the army defended france and then there was another election in which all men could vote and the new government  came and decided to kill the king for treason like an ordinary citizen.


Yet there was inflation and lack of food and infighting still and people that sought to fight against the new government were called treasonous and they started to chop of Heads.  This is called the Reign of Terror.   500,000 were put in jail for being agianst the Revolutionary party.  17,000 had their heads chopped off by order of the judges of the government (Like PRI) another 10,000 armed rebels without trial.  Eventually the leader of this government was called treasonous and had his head chopped off. 


Whereas in the American revolution, people learned to agree to disagree, in France they decided to stop the opposition by force and then revolution and then stopping the others by force and then revolution and then stopping the others by force and then revolution and then...


There was to much fighting and what happens when a revolution goes bad?  The military takes over.  In this case it was Napoleon and his army.


Napoleon he not only brings stability to France, but decides he will bring down kings and put in place liberty, equality and brotherliness to all of Europe and he does march across Europe bringing these things.  Where ever he goes kings first try reform and then fall.




Edmund Burke:  Anti French Revolution


Conservative: Conserve the traditional order.


Burke is English.  He Liked the king and likes England and hates the Revolution.


He says things that are old are good.  97  The older the better.  How can the new individual with so little knowledge of history just throw out tradition?   Certainly there is a reason these institutions have been sucessful.  It is easy to throw out the old, but what are you going to replace it with?  Just chopping off the past is like a  child killing its parents. 


Religion is natural. pg103  and comforting and good.  Athiesm cannot work.


The state is necessary.


Confiscation of church property is horrible.  120


The writers, the liberators are in it for their own power.  To be demagogues.  They say they are for the people.  Then they get them all angry by exaggerating the evils of the church and the king.  And after they have gotten rid of and taken the property of the king and church, they take their power and will do and do do worse abuses than those they replace.


Burke says that society requires hierarchy ( belief that some things are higher and some things are lower.


The State is above you, it is opposed to all are equal) (and so some people are above you)  and


manners  (there is decorum and ways you treat eachother as not just equal animals where no one has anything to aim up towards) manners imply a belief that there is something to respect in what people represent (a priest a king a president a teacher) Manners are why the british people had evolution and not revolution.


 Read handout.


He says that a social order has evolved for reason


During the Dark Ages there had been a universal aspect to europe. 


Then merchants made kings and they fought to get control from the Pope.  Then protestants fought Catholics and Europe had had alot of wars.  Some People started to thing beyond this to Universal rights of Man.  But this revolution backfires a lot.  They ended up in creating nations.


people were all just catholic peasants.   The fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of men.  If you asked a peasant what country they were from they wouldn’t understand you.  Amongst the elites they could all write eachother in Latin.


After the breakup of the dark we get countries and peoples.  We never had this before.


Read Green History transition to ag and cities handout.


In 1793 the wars of kings were over the wars of peoples had begun.  The french revolution is the first war involving one people against another peoples.  This 19th century pattern lasted until WWI. 


After 1917 the conflict of ideologies supplemented that of nation states.  Now that is dead  All the great 19th century political ideals fought over were western.


What we will discuss leads to the first peoples’ war.



Result: Nationalism

Aftermath: Nationalism: a love of country that equates people with their country.  This is done under liberal and king led governments.


This is where one feels themselves french or german.  But other than a few people wouldn’t define themselves as Roman.  But people that lived under rome. 


The French Revolution really shows that the security of the state is the mind. 


It does so subtlely.  As Napoleon comes to bring liberty , fraternity and equality to other nations.  The kings tremble.  They 1) make reforms

2) they appeal to nationalism.


Ask them what they think makes up a nation.


Nationalism now includes an identification with a peoples that has a shared future and a shared past (including myths and historical heros) and a shared race, shared language and shared ideals.


The Frenchman, the german man, I am austrian, I am Australian. 


United states is different now in that it is not a people, only an ideal.  Therefore we are very fragile. 

History of Nationalism


In rome people were part of a civilization.  They obeyed the laws of rome.  They followed the universal language of rome (the same universal language of the dark ages).


During the Dark Ages, there had been an ideal of the universal christian brotherhood of man.  There was the language latin that was understood all over Europe (by the elites).


Protestantism made for more nationalism.  Then Churches became national (the church of England).


Bibles were translated into languages that became standard.   People started writing in their own languages and of their own stories.


Luther called for universal literacy.  And nations trying to become nations tried to make schools for all which stressed national ideals and art.


We said in the last unit that the Europeans doing imperialism created countries.  They did, but not necessarily peoples.  Africa still suffers from  thribes that don’t jibe with borders.  We may do the same thing soon.


Development and Character of the German (prussian) School System.


Prussia was the largest German state and Lutheran was the state church and did most of the education until the 1700s. 


Frederick the Great (1740-1786) took a long step toward the antionalization of education when, in 1763, he issued his General Schoool Regulation, which required children to attend school between the ages of 5 and 13 or until they had demonstrated their proficiency in religion, reading, writing and other knnowledge found in books.  This law also provided for the examination and licensing of teachers by state approved inspectors, local pastors being named for that position.


It regulated fees and set up a fund for poor children through church donations.


Only teachers of religious character and exemplary behavior were to be approved or retained.  Prayers , hymns memorizing and interpreting bible passages were the curriculum.


Memorization, drill and repetition were the teaching method.


In 1794 Frederick Wiliam II wrote Code for education:


Schools and universities are state institutions, charged with the instruction of youth in useful informatioin and scientific knowledge. 
Such institutions may be established only with the knowledge and approval of the Atate.  All public schools and educational institutions are under the supervision of the State and aare at all times subject tot its examinationa dn inspection.

The principle that education is a function of the state, not of parents or of the church, was clearly, then affirmed in 1794. 


After losing to Napoleon at Jena (1806) Ficht and other German leaders called for a sup[reme effort to awaken in the hearts of al Prussians the spirit of patriotism.  Cumpulsory military training and the eforcement of compulsory school laws were quickly achieved.


Pestalozzianism was officially approved as a means of improving the morale of the masses.  Gymnastic, military and patriotic societies were established everywhere.  Individualism was denounced by Fichte and others as a national curse.  He said “I hope...that I convince some Germans, and that I shall bring them to  see that it is education alone which can save us from all the evils by which we are oppressed”


So the church went from a church to a state function.  Thereafter their primaryu goal was the fostering of a spirit of patriotic devotion to the rulers of the state.


Thus Prussia was the first nation to have made universal education a realitty.


The schools were set up so poor people coudn’t get tot eh secondary schools due to money (so class was made permanent).


After Napoleon the wars of kings were over the wars of peoples had begun. This 19th century pattern lasted until WWI.


Nationalism becomes a religion.  People love their country.  they will die for their country. Poets all seek to prove their nation is the best. 


Discuss national character as as a concept (during WWI russia was a red bear, England a lion, Japan a yellow monkey).


Create a Nation:


More than the industrial revolution, Nationalism spurs education. The french and the americans seek secular education for the sake of their nations.  This is without division.  Cries for education were made on the basis of a literate population making for a stronger nation. He could then read national newspapers (no TV yet).


Brainstorm: What makes a nation?  Usually, a people a past (including myths and historical heros).  A theme song and a flag.  A national character (what are peole from your country like (what are the goals of the people). 


Before this time there had been a universal aspect to europe. 


people were all just catholic peasants.   The fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of men.  If you asked a peasant what country they were from they wouldn’t understand you.  Amongst the elites they could all write eachother in Latin.


After the breakup of the dark we get countries and peoples.  We never had this before.


Nationalism arose.  This was a movement that strove to build political states out of groups having a common language a common history and a common culture. 


In some places Patriotism and prejudice went hand in hand.  A common language and literature and common institutions are the distinguishing marks of a nation.  With the enlightenment came the idea that any people with the same history, culture and instituions have a right to self-goernment.   Our nation was one of the first founded on these principals.  It was particularly made stronger by economic rivalries “they” are ripping “us” off.


Where Kings survived the democratic storms, kings became genle fathers (england) or benevolent despots (Germany) 


Everywhere the common man was exalted.  Humanitarianism the belief in man’s perfectability and the inevitability of prgress and a faith in the doctrines of liberty, equality aqnd the right to happiness were among the ideals of early social reformers.

And democracy assumes an educated people.


In the 19th century, the principle of free universal compulsory  elementary education for national ends had won slmost the universal approval of the Western world and in Japan.  And each national revolution brought calls for changes in education.


During the Dark Ages there had been a universal aspect to europe. 


Then merchants made kings and they fought to get control from the Pope.  Then protestants fought Catholics and Europe had had alot of wars.  Some People started to thing beyond this to Universal rights of Man.  But this revolution backfires a lot.  They ended up in creating nations.


people were all just catholic peasants.   The fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of men.  If you asked a peasant what country they were from they wouldn’t understand you.  Amongst the elites they could all write eachother in Latin.


After the breakup of the dark we get countries and peoples.  We never had this before.


Mexico has a people.  Germany has a people.  Mexico has “La Raza”  and the US is supposed to be a nation beyond “peoples”.  And also to respect the rights of “Peoples”  people’s free and yet legislate peoples.  Hmnn!?!


In the new section after next we’ll talk of the WWI and it will involve several people and the characters are as follows:

Germans are Romantics, English are inventors, America the future and France the artists and Russia the bears.