North wanted industry

South agriculture

Indians tribe


Background of US slavery

Slavery starts in 3500 bc.  It goes up until industrial revolution.


The US doesn’t invent slavery, it ends it.

Columbus brought blacks on his fourth trip to south America.  


Actually only 500,000 slaves of the 13 million went to the United States.  4 million went to brazil The Spanish empire took another 2.5 million.


In 1619, 12 years after the white man got to north America, a Dutch ship brought 20 blacks to Virginia (at least three were women).   


They were not slaves.  They were indentured servants.  They had to work to pay for their voyage to the US.  At the end of their servitude the master had to give them freedom, clothing, a small sum of money or a plot of land.  All of these were expensive and the price of labor was going up.


Slavery wasn’t that big in the US for the first 70 years.  The puritans, for instance, didn’t have slaves.

But by 1700 slavery took off in the US South.


America (north and south) one of eight blacks died. 

7 million total, died coming tot the new world.  Again a minority coming to the US.

1 in 8 died on the ship.


Tight pack and loose pack


There was a shortage of slaves as the slave area increased with the adding of louisianna and texas as slave states.    This was coupled with the rise of cotton following eli whitneys invention in 1793. In the 25 years before the civil war, three-fourths of the worlds cotton came from the south.


January 5th 1808  it was illegal to bring new slaves into the united States.  Some came in because they were expensive, but a trickle.  This agreement was passed under Jefferson. 


The slaves were then sold within the united states.  It involved families being broken up.  Blacks were sold in auction and it was big money.


Slavery only existed in the southern states.

Cotton was what it was based on it.

25% owned slaves in the south




A mystic railroad without tracks wound its way across America over one

hundred and fifty years ago. The railroad, Called the Underground Railroad,

was a misnomer because it was neither underground nor a railroad. The name

was a secret codeword invented for the escape route used by southern slaves

in the pre-Civil War days.


The slaves were aided by thousands of "conductors" who used covered wagons

or carts with false bottoms to carry slaves from one "station" to another.

With the help of 3,000 conductors over 100,000 slaves escaped to freedom.

Escaping slaves were called "passengers" or "merchandise" on their journey

to freedom.


Among the more famous conductors were: Salmon P. Chase, who as Chief Justice

of the Supreme Court would later preside over Andrew Johnson's impeachment

and is also the portrait on the $10,000 bill


Harriet tubman

 Armanita Greene was born into slavery on a Maryland plantation in 1820 or 1821. She later took her mother's name, "Harriet". She was force to work by the age of 5.


During this time crops were bad so the Masters would rent slaves out to others.  She was rented out to a woman that made her work on a loom.  The poor couple she was rented to had a dingy log cabin.  She had to sleep on the floor next to a loom.  From my reading not many blacks ever slept on anything but a floor.  To get out of this she played sick and learned very poorly. 


This is a tactic that made many believe in the “lazy” black.


Back at the plantation people would talk of the north and the underground railroad.  She heard of Nat Turners uprising.  this would be true because after everything would get tight on the plantation.  The masters would get nervous.  People weren’t allowed to be in groups and sing certain songs.  Others about slaves running away and disappearing infront of the pursuing masters eyes were just hopes turned into dreams turned into stories.


At 8 she was rented to another family.  But the woman there started beating her right away.  She beat her alot and one day she ran away


Harriet was a very smart and strong willed individual.


When she was 13  she heard a strange noise on the plantation.  When she was picking corn she saw a black figure running through the woods.  She saw the master chasing him and she followed.  The master was yelling that he’s whip the man badly when he caught him.  He eventually caughthim in a store.  The overseer ordered harriet to help tie him up.   The overseerer couldn’t whip the slave unless someone helped to tie him up.   She just stood there.  Then the slave ran out and as the overseer went to chase him she instinctively blocked the door of the store.  He picked up a two pound weight from the counter and through it at her.  It nailed her in the forehead and gracked her skull.


After that she nearly died and would go to sleep at nearly anytime.  She also had horrible violent headaches  the rest of her life.


She almost died.  She spent months in tremendous pain.  She wondered if when she recovered the Master would sell her down into the deep south.  That would mean really hard work, separation from her family and no chance to be free.


She wished and wished he would die and they could get a new master.  He did.  She felt she might have caused it.


She also started having prophetic dreams.  At several points in her life she had dreams that would save her life.


The next man she worked for saw that she was as strong as any man.  He could ax and haul wood like a man.  So she was let out of the house.  She worked in the field and met a man that showed her things like how to walk quiet in the woods like an indian and trap and get berries.  She didn’t like that the master made her perform feats of strength for her guests.  This was humiliating, she was 19.


In 1844 Harriet met , fell in love with and married John Tubman, a free black man. She was allowed to sleep in his cabin at night but her slavery continued. She started her serious thought about going north.  One night she told him.  He told her that if she went up north she’d freeze and possibly be caught and sent down south.  And she had nothing to do up there. He liked the south and wasn’t going anywhere.   What was there for her? 


She said she’d be free.  She told him a dream that that men on horseback came riding into her quarter and she heard shrieks and screams of women and children as they were put on the chain gang and it would wake her up.


She had another reoccuring dream this time she was flying she flew over the cotton and cornfields and then she flew over Cambridge and the Choptank riverThen she’d go over a mountain at last she reached a barrier (sometimes a river and sometimes a fence and she couldn’t get over it.  And just as she’d start sinking, ladies dressed in white would pull her over.


He told her he hated these dreams.


She told him she knew how to survive in the woods.


He said that if she tried to escape he’d  “tell the Master.  Tell him right quick”.  She couldn’t believe it she asked if he was serious.  If he did that she’d be sold down south.   She couldn’t believe that.  Free blacks always helped slave blacks.  And if you loved someone you’d risk yourself for them.  She asked if he was serious  She could tell he was.  From then on she was afraid of him.


She had met a white woman that approached her and she told her how she got the scar on her head and the woman told her that if she ever needed help she whouldcome see her. 


The new master, after the master died, sold her 2 sisters down into deep south.  She knew she would be sold to the even harsher conditions of the deep South if she did not escape.   she knew she had to do it soon.

She went one night to the womans house.  She was afraid that she’d fall asleep at the wrong time.  She persuaded her 3 brothers to go with her.


Her brothers were horribly loud and slow compared to her.  She had incredible eyes.  Her brothers were hearing things and afraid of being caught and announced they were turning back.  They were afraid of bloodhounds and search parties.She said they’d be sold south to a trade gang if going back.  They were too afraid.  They all went back.


The next day she found out she was going to be sold south and took off.


The woman gave her directions to a stop on the railroad.  This was the first way she heard of it.  She learned that it didn’t go underground, it was made of loose anti slavery people.


She started out scared she knew she was easy to identify.  The first farmhouse she got to they gave her a broom and told her to sweep.  She was suspicious but saw it was a cover.  She slept in the barn with the pigs.In the morning the farm man loaded up a cart of goods he put her in with them.  She spent all day and night under that blanket. 


He left her off at a river.  He told her to go up the river and to travel only at night and sleep at day.  She was amazed that a white man would risk himself for her.  It took her weeks of traveling and hiding in peoples barns and in hay stacks and truping up rivers and finally she got there.  The North.


"I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person now I was free. There was such a glory through the trees and over the  fields, and I felt like I was in heaven."


She worked hard for two years,In the strange place called philadelphia.  Buildings were taller and blacks were free.  She worked in a kitchen and hated it but saving money to return to Maryland for her sister and her two children.  She went to the Philadelphia vigialence committee.  People went there to find out about their relatives and this was where she would check people in that made it up north.  She brought 3000 people there.  She aquired the name of “Moses” 


Soon she was making regular trips, each one riskier than the last. She had shrewd planning skills and always chose a different route and used disguises to avoid being caught.


On one of her early trips she went back to get her husband.  She had forgiven him in her time away.  When she got there, she was dressed as a man  and when he opened the door she said she had returned for him.  She could do it now.  Then she noticed athat he wasn’t alone.  He had a new wife half her age in there.


There were rewards totaling $40,000 offered for her arrest, but she was never caught.  This was an incredibly high price on her head and people were hunting for her.   


As she went and people would try to chicken out, she’d pull a gun on them and say “ we’re free or we die”  Because if someone turned back, they would be tortured and tell. 


Once she was almost caught when she fell asleep and they didn’t wake her.  But in her dream she had a vision that they should go across the river.  They all said they couldn’t cross the river, she said she saw it in her dream.  She crossed it going deeper and deeper till it was above her chin and then t got  shallower.  The folks were just on her trail.  If they hadn’t crossed they’d of been caught. 


She continued to see places that she’d never been to.


On another trip whe came to get her old parents.  She actually did it .  During this trip she dressed like a little old lady and bought some chickens.  Her old master started driving behind her and she figured it out.  She dropped the chickens and went after them.  The Master watched and laughed and took off.


As it got later in history, the anti fugitive laws got stricter.  She had to get people all the way to Canada.  It was at this time she started meeting Frederick Douglass who would house folks illegally.


She later on started speaking to anti slavery groups. But she felt like she wasn’t doing enough.  At one point she saw they were taking a man to be returned and many were trying to block his arrest.  She, an older woman,  punched a cop in the face and knocked him down and got the boy out to the streeet where he ran away.  She also got away.  She still made a trip after that. 


Harriet Tubman continued her courageous exploits during the Civil War. She became a nurse, scout, and spy for the Union armies. In one campaign she personally led 750 Southern slaves to freedom. General Saxon reported she "made many a raid inside the enemy lines, displaying remarkable courage,

zeal, and fidelity."

 She was honored more than once by the Union Army, although she did not receive a pension for years.


In her later years she continued to serve others by establishing a home for the elderly in upstate New York, where she died, in poverty, in 1913. The Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Colored People in Auburn is now a museum.


Harriet "Moses" Tubman lived to the ripe-old age of 97 and died in 1913. Millions of slaves admired her brave life and the many escaped slaves who owed their freedom to Tubman probably felt as Harriet Tubman did when she said,


Lessons from Harriet “Moses” Tubman’s life

One person can make a difference.  She not only saved the people she saved, but inspired a love and desire for freedom in black people all over the south. 


She freaked out the white people and created tension to rise.  If there is  a problem, and you dedicate your life to stopping or reducing it, you can make a difference. 


Another lesson from her life is not to have lame excuses.  She passed out 3 times a day and that didn’t stop her.  She was really poor.  Nothing to eat many times.  She was a woman and black and therefore had to work twice as hard as anyone else to get respect.  She kept fighting till she was really old.




The history of compromise was the history of compromise between the North and th eSouth over slavery.

The compromises are all between the North that wants no more slavery and the south that depends on it.

There is also the question of who will dominate the country, north or south.  Each gets how many senate votes with a state?


And the south’s biggest threat is that if law unfavorable to it are passed it will seceed.  Secession means leave the union.  The north doesn’t want to split the country.


The constitution settles things for a while.

The constitutional 3/5ths compromise and the 1808 compromise.


Expansion brings the issue back.

In 1820 the missouri Compromise said that all South of the Border of Missouri would be legal for slavery.  All north would be illegal.


The Compromise of 1850 allows California in as a free state.  But then the fugitive slave laws must be strictly enforced.


Kansas Nebraska Act.


Kansas had to be admited one way or another.  Kansas was allowed to vote for self determination.  But northerners and southerners poured in to vote.  Bloody kansas had fighting.   John Brown was a white man that believed  killed a lot of Pro slavery southerners in Kansas.  He then escaped and he met with Frederick Douglas and he tried to take over a garrison, the re was a month between when he was caught and when he was hanged.


The Dred Scott decision.


The Dredd Scott case.  When dred Scot was taken north he argued that he was free because of the laws of missouri.


He was not a citizen and blacks had no rights and that the congress could not regulate slavery and that the missouri compromise was illegal.  All could have slaves south and north.


The Dred Scot decision killed all hopes of a compromise stopping the war.


Southern justifications

What would happen if there was no cotton for 3 years?  England would tumble and civilization would go with it. 

Norhtern factories worked children and women 12 hours a day in terrible conditions.  Who was worse off the slave or the northern worker?  Except for freedom the slaves sometimes had it beter.


The idea was that blacks were ordained to be slaves so that whites could be free and civilized.  They rightly pointed out that all societies had slaves.  Both were defending liberty.  American exceptionalism.


The constitution did leave slavery to the states and protected property. 


A field hand cost as much as 2000 dollars.  They couldn’t live without it and would go to war to protect their rights.


The senator balance was kept by admiting slaves states.  When we won the mexican american war we go t more states and texas joined as a slave state.  California came in as a free state , but the south was able to come up and get slaves from the north. 



Abe was the stuff heroes are made of.  He  was possible our greatest president.  He kept this country together through tremendous trials and as, perhaps, no other person could of.


Abe Lincoln was born in 1809.  He grew up in a log cabin.  His father never learned to read or write.  His mother died when he was 9 and he and his father buried his mother together. 


His father remarried a year later to a woman who had three children of her own.  And over the objections of his father she sent him to school a month or two at a time.    His total schooling was uner a year, but he taught himself math and reading.  As a youth he had 5 books he read over and over.  One on the puritans, another on the history of the US another the life story of George Washington.


By 16 he had quite a reputation as a talker and someone of incredible strength.  He could sink axes deeper into wood than anyone.  By 18 he was 6’ 4”.


His family  moved to illinois.  There he spent the summer making three thousand fence posts with his cousin.


At 21 he set out on his own.  He moved to a really small town and had many jobs.  He got elected to the illinois assembly 3 times, after one defeat.  And read and read and read enough to pass the bar and become a lawyer without formal education.


He fell in love with a girl, ann rutlidge, who died and he just walked around for weeks not talking to anyone.  Then he moved to the state capitol and never moved back.  As a lawyer he worked in 14 counties and rode horseback to them through all kinds of cold and bad weather and got good at speech and debate.


At 33 he married his wife mary todd.  She was stuck up and had a temper and pushed him to greatness.


He was elected to congress, was against the war with mexico and slavery, then lost the next election. 

He soon joined the new Radical Republican Party.  In 1858 he held a series of debates with Senator Stephan Douglas that made him famous.


In 1860  the new party met in Chicago to decide who would be their candidate for president.  They chose lincoln.  But lincoln ran on an anti-slavery platform and by the time he was elected 7 states had left the united states.    Less than 6 weeks after his election the civil war started.



1860 Lincoln is elected.    He is against slavery, but wants to preserve the union more.  He says to the south that he will protect their rights.  But the south thinks they are going to be out voted in congress and so start to secceed.  


Before he is put in office, 5 states secceed.  They start a new country called THE CONFEDERACY.  Their President is Jefferson Davis.




Montgomery alabama is their capital.  Spring 1961  11 states have joined the confederate states of america.


In charleston South Carolina Fort  Sumpter has 79 Northerners in it.    The south thinks their presence in their new country an insult.  4:30a m ,  April 12 th 1861 Confederates attack the fort.  After 34 hours the Northerners give up.  Lincoln calls for 75, 000 volunteers and the south declares war.




 WAR IS HORRIBLE.  In this war we lose 640,000 men.   This is in a country of 31 million.  27 million white, 4 million black.  Almost as many as in every other war combined.One soldier was killed or wounded for every 4 slaves that be came free.

The south is devastated.  It lost 40% of its livestock.


The monetary cost was tremendous: 20 billion dollars.  5 times what the government had spent in the previous 80 years.  20 years later interest payments and benefit payments were 2/3rds of the federal budget.

Show the video on the civil war by schlessinger


Blacks begin a new life

For four million black people, the civil War meant freedom.  First was shouting and dancing and leaving the plantation.  For many, just walking down a road, or being able to decide to do it, was their first exercise in citizenship. Mothers set out to search for daughters and sons who had been sold away during slave days.  Cildren began the long trip back to find their parents.  everywhere blacks were on the move.


Since their marriages were now recognized by law, many blacks went off to have the formal marriages that were denied them as slaves.  Black carpenters began building homes, churches and schools.  Black teachers instructed black children in reading , writing and arithmetic.  In Charleston, one black school used the building that had been a slave auction room.  Teachers stood on a platform that had been used to sell other blacks.


 Reconstruction Politics (1865-1877)

Lincoln thought that slavery was an evil and that the country had been punished for it.  The south was devastated and that we should get to the business of healing the nation and helping the destitute.  The wrath and punishment of god had been spent.


Lincoln said 10% need to swear loyalty to the union to be readmitted with no more conditions.


But just a few days after lee surrendered to Grant, Lincoln was Assasinatedafd by John Wilkes Booth.


Andrew Johnson took over.  Andrew Johnson was the only President, other than Bill Clinton, to be impeached.


Andrew Johnson pardoned the old confederates and let the old senators back in.  They had to come to him for a personal pardon.  He was a poor southerner that hated rich southernors.


6 Generals, Jefferson Davis’s cabinet, 9 confederate army officers, and 58 confederate congressmen  and The vice president of the confederacy were voted back in. 


He would allow states back in without granting blacks the right to vote.  The new confederate states he let in soon passed “black codes” to regulate blacks.  Children without parents could be leased to work for a white person.  Any black person convcicted of vagrancy could be leased to a white person.  The courts were run by whites and former owners were given first bid on the convicts. 

Blacks were not aloud to have guns or hold meetings and couldn’t ride with whites in transportation.



Radical Republicans said NO!  They refused to let the states back in and refused to seat any ex-confederate senators or representatives.  The Constitution puts Congress in charge of letting new states into the union and they were going to do it. 

They reflected the angry tone of many northerners and they didn’t want this war to have no results.  Many had lost relatives in this war.

They knew that if the Congress did nothing, the evil whites would rule the blacks and kill all whites that tried to stop them.


They made laws about how what states had to do to get back into the union.  Johnson would veto them and they would override his veto.


They made a civil rights bill that made the black codes illegal.  He vetoed it and they overrode it.

It was the legislature vs. the executive.


The 14th is put in to solve constitutional and political problems.  Citizen rights legal equality.  Also due process rights.


Southern states rejected it and Johnson was on their side. 


Reconstruction terms

Established military law.    In 1867 they passed a law that divided the south into 5 military zones that the US army would control.


To be let back in they had to hold conventions to rewrite their constitutions.  Blacks and whites were deligates to these constitutional conventions and they gave rights to blacks and taxes were made fairer for the poor and whipping inmates and jailing folks for debt were abolished.  Public education was provided for.  Property rights for voting were abolished.    The congress would then check them.


Required 14 ratification for readmitance.  This says

“All persons born or naturalized in the US and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the US and of the state wherein they reside.  Nos state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the priileges or immunities of citizens of the US; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws.”


It says that if anyone is denied the right to vote, they won’t be counted in determining the House of Representative count.


It also says that no former confederate leaders were allowed to vote or hold office.


Johnson vetoed it and they passed it over him.


The US military made sure that blacks voted in the new elections. For a time things were really good.


In fact 22 blackmen were in the federal Congress.  1/2 were ex-slaves.


The impeachment battle

The Senate tried to impeach Johnson.  They made a law that said he couldn’t fire his Secretary of War, Stanton.

Johnson fired him.  They felt they had the issue they could bring him down with.  He was impeached, but the Senate fell one vote short of finding him guilty.


The Freedmen’s Bureau

Blacks had to make enough money and feed their families.  This was often difficult.  Many whites had no money to pay anyone, black or white.  Some resented paying blacks for labor they had once received from slaves.  Conflict ofver labor was frequent, with blacks most often the losers.


It was clear that the enormous changes in the south for race relations needed some help.


In 1865 the Freedmans Bureau was created by congress.We tried to help the slaves (no other nation did this).


The Freedman’s Bureau helped the disposed with relief, gave out land (only 800,000 acres and 5,000 pieces of town property.  Almost all of this was taken back when Johnson granted amnesty to the original confederate owners who had abandoned the land), organized schools, helped blacks to make labor contracts, it had the power to try cases and make decisions for blacks and whites.  It set up 40 hospitals.

 Its greatest work was in education.  In five years it spent 5 million dollars creating 4,329 schools and hiring 10,000 teachers who taught 247,333 pupils.

By 1869 9000 teachers taught a quarter of a million people to read.


Throughout its 5 years it was under almost constant attack.  It was one of the things that the President vetoed and the Congress overrode him on.


The Ku Klux Klan

The Klan was started to help orphans and widows of the Confederate cause.  It quickly changed its goal to retaking the south for white supremacy by terror.


The economy after the civil war was terrible.  Cotton prices fell by about 50%.  To make up for the loss they grew more cotton and the price went down further.  When ever things are bad, people look for someone to blame.  This is called scapegoating.  Politicians are too happy to do this.  You blame the countries’ problems on someone else.


Teachers were tarred and feathered, schools and churches bombed.  Black officials and republicans were the targets.  They also attacked successful black farmers and businessmen.


The US army tried to stop them but they rode at night.  Anyone in the justice system that tried to side with the blacks or republicans were terrorized.


By 1870 violence had grown to enormous proportions in th e South.  The congress ordered an investigation into the Klan and 76 other hate groups.  New laws were passed to suppress the Klan and for a time violence lesssened.  But the terror continued and republican meatings were broken up and riots were provoked in which problacks and blacks were killed and on election day non-democrats had to hide.


Economic sanctions were also used.  Businesses had to sign pledges not to do business with anyone that was anti democrat.  And folks were still poor and voting wasn’t secret.  They destroyed the livestock of Black farmers and punished blacks that did work other than agriculture.


People in the north got tired of the reconstruction wars.

The north gave up.  Races were not seen as equal.  And blacks were competing up north for jobs.

Blacks were seen as outsiders even by Norths.


Herein lies another horrible truth.  Mass movements of evil succeed also.  For bad men to suceed, good men must do nothing.

Reconstruction’s End

1876 the Tilden Hayes election give tilden the popular vote, but he needs an electoral vote.  Some are contested.  Congreess gets a commission to decide and the election goes to Hayes.  Democrats get the white house and the Federal troops leave the south.


Racial Caste started.


The sharecropping system

Plessy v. Fergusson

 Plessy was suing his judge “ferguson”  He had been denied his property without due process.  His property was his reputation of being white. The supreme court invalidated his claim.  This was a case that validated the seperate, but equal outlook. 


The rise of Jim Crow

Separated bathrooms and schools and drinking fountains and restaraunts.

Lynchings killed 200 a year.  Campaigns to stop the right to vote were successful.  Segregating was okay as long as there was equal in Plessy v. Fergeson.


The Legacy of Reconstruction

got public education, the right to vote and a new level of civil rights. 1866 to 1877.


The 13th 14th and 15th were used to give civil rights after WW II.



An interesting thing is happening with resegregation. The politics of the day emphasize differences.  We are supposed to think of ourselves as Mexican americans and European Americans and African Americans and all kinds of separate americans.  I think that we should have a color and race blind society.  I also believe that race is a stupid concept.  It has no biological meaning.